Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Records
The Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland was established in 1901, for assistance to students, for expansion of the Scottish universities, and for stimulation of research. The endowment of the Trust on establishment was $10 million, several times larger than the governmental funding of the four Scottish universities at the time. The Trust was accepted, but remained one of the most controversial of all the large Carnegie benefactions. Carnegie was criticized for creating an “academic dictatorship” by his reliance on trustees, and for “pauperization” of the university clientele by providing financial assistance for Scottish students.