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Oral history interview with...

1. Oral history interview with David A. Hamburg 1996-1998

Hamburg, David A., 1925-2019
  • Name: Hamburg, David A., 1925-2019 (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 1996-1998
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 2
  • Abstract: Childhood: grandson of Latvian Jewish immigrants; education: undergraduate degree, Indiana University, medical degree, Rockefeller University; Michael Reese Hospital: internship in psychiatry, 1947-1948; Yale University: residency training, psychiatry , 1948-1949; Brooke Army Hospital, 1950-1952; Walter Reed Institute, 1952-1953: research on stress-related disorders, burn victims; Stanford University: fellow, Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences, genetics research, 1957-1961, chairman, Department of Psychology, 1961-1972: development of Behavior Endocrine Genetic Responses to Stress [BEG], primate research with Jane Goodall, Tanzania; Congo hostage crisis, 1975; president, Institute of Medicine, 1975-1980: interest in children's, adolescent's health; World Health Organization [WHO], 1975-1986; professor, Harvard University, 1980-1982: formation of health policy organizations, Early LIfe Working Group; arms control: Pugwash Conference, 1978, development of crisis prevention, Cold War; Gorbachev: first meeting with, coup against; president, Carnegie Corporation, 1982-1997: formation of Starting Points Initiative, Years of Promise, Great Transitions task forces, establishment of the Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Council on Adolescent Development [CAD], Inquiry into Poverty in Southern Africa; media representation of childcare issues; Carnegie Final Report, 1998; relationships with presidents from Gerald R. Ford to Bill Clinton; reflections on leadership, role of foundations.
Oral history interview with...

2. Oral history interview with Dudley Horner, 1999

Horner, Dudley
  • Name: Horner, Dudley (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 1999
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 2
  • Abstract: Childhood and education: raised in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, student movement, move to England early 1960s, return to Johannesburg, interaction with individuals banned by the government; career: archivist for the South African Institute of Race Relations; interest in labor relations; work with South Africa Labor and Development Research Unit [SALDRU], 1975-: colleagueship with director Francis Wilson, training social science students and returning scholars from exile, initial funding from the Anglo-American Chairman's Fund and the Ford Foundation, political effects of the First Carnegie Inquiry into Poverty and Development in Southern Africa, training black student interns to develop research skills; SALDRU's contribution to the Second Carnegie Inquiry into Poverty and Development in Southern Africa: frustration of data collection without intervention, importance of distinction between rural and urban poverty; effects of study; Francis Wilson's summation of the study, Uprooting Poverty: The South African Challenge; appointment to chair the South African Wage Board
Oral history interview with...

3. Oral history interview with Francis Wilson, 1999

Wilson, Francis, 1939-
  • Name: Wilson, Francis, 1939- (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 1999
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 2
  • Abstract: Background: born 1939 Livingstone, Zambia; childhood Eastern Cape, South Africa, speaking Xhosa, anthropologist parents, progressive attitudes at home; University of Cape Town [UCT]: math and physics, political involvement, student organizations; U niversity of Cambridge: economics and race relations, Student Christian Movement, integrating faith and politics, social segregation; coming to terms with father's death in 1961; University of Virginia one-year scholarship; South African resistance movements in 1960s: military opposition, significant black opposition jailed, dead or in exile; career: return to South Africa, teaching and research job at UCT's School of Economics (1967- ); personal political development: anti-apartheid struggle within South Africa, influence of theological training, implementing creative strategies; research and publishing: oscillating migratory labor system, mines, pass laws, analyzing South African economy beyond national boundaries; establishing the Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit [SALDRU]; interaction with Carnegie Corporation of New York [Carnegie]: discussions with Alan Pifer and David Hood, realizing the Second Inquiry on Poverty and Development in Southern Africa [Second Inquiry] (1982-1984), the First Inquiry on Poverty in South Africa, creative interaction and trusting relationship with Carnegie; approach and preparations for Second Inquiry: organization and structure, bibliography, building racially diverse team of researchers, people together, discussions with Mamphela A. Ramphele and Fikile Bam, communicating project and gaining support from the African National Congress [ANC], support from the Ford Foundation for interns and returning scholars at SALDRU, interaction with media, collecting personal stories, confronting reality with fieldwork; goals of study: gather information, raise general consciousness and develop ideas, short versus long-term goals of political liberation; Omar Badsha and photographic contributions to Second Inquiry; poverty in South Africa: water distribution, rural versus urban, different geographical and social realities, unemployment, urbanization, industrialization and generation of poverty in rural areas; Black Consciousness Movement: Stephen Biko, Ramphele; violence and turmoil in 1980s; 1984 conference on Second Inquiry and post-conference publications: Education, from Poverty to Liberty : Report for the Second Carnegie Inquiry into Poverty and Development in Southern Africa, Uprooting Poverty: The South African Challenge; role of organizations for political change; SALDRU and the Project for Statistics and Living Standards in Development: chairman, support from the World Bank and the ANC; challenges facing the post-apartheid government; continued role of philanthropy in South Africa
Oral history interview with...

4. Oral history interview with Kara Andrade, 2013

Andrade, Kara
  • Name: Andrade, Kara (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 2013
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 3
  • Abstract: Ashoka Fellow, Ashoka Innovators for the Public. Early Life and background: emigration from Guatemala, experiences of family as undocumented immigrants, service as advocate for family and other immigrants; first career in field of public health with f ocus on immigrant education and advocacy; pursuit of graduate degree in journalism at University of California, Berkeley: work with Robert A. Calo, experience as News21 fellow, exploration of digital spiritual practices in Second Life, research project on Guatemalan art; Columbia Center for Oral History Summer Institute: relationship of oral history to journalism, undergraduate thesis utilizing oral history; career in journalism and plan to incorporate oral history.
Oral history interview with...

5. Oral history interview with Mamphela Ramphele 1999

Ramphele, Mamphela
  • Name: Ramphele, Mamphela (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 1999
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 2
  • Abstract: Born in rural South Africa; childhood: strong influence of educator parents, reasonably comfortable family life, knowledge of poverty and the power of education, childhood perceptions of apartheid system; mother and grandmothers as powerful female rol e models; education: experience in secondary boarding school, University of the North, B.A., University of Natal Medicine School, graduate studies; career: profession as extension of political activities, membership in the South African Student Organization (SASO), transfer to Port Elizabeth, establishment of Zanempilo Community Health Center, work as first medical officer, establishment of Ithuseng Community Health Center, Carnegie Foundation of New York, Carnegie Inquiry into Poverty and Development in South Africa, first Carnegie Distinguished Fellow (1988); banishment to Northern South Africa and lifting of ban in 1983; black poverty in South Africa: reforms of Pieter W. Botha, Uprooting Poverty and The Cordoned Heart, Reconstruction and Development Program, African Gender Institute at the University of Cape Town, gender, poverty and racism; recollections of Franics Wilson, David A. Hamburg and Nelson Mandela; reflections on South Africa's past and future.
Oral history interview with...

6. Oral history interview with Nicholas Lemann, 2013

Lemann, Nicholas
  • Name: Lemann, Nicholas (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 2013
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 3
  • Abstract: Background and Family: Jewish, antebellum plantation owner ancestry; upbringing in New Orleans in the late 1950s and 1960s, father was a lawyer from a family based in Donaldsville, Louisiana with conservative politics, mother was a child psychologist with liberal politics from Perth Amboy, New Jersey; Early Life and Education: childhood exposure to newspaper journalism; early exposure to editors and writers of New Journalism, writing for local newspapers in high school, admittance to Harvard College, role as Editor-in-Chief at The Harvard Crimson, theme of early commitment to career in journalism; Career in Professional Journalism: writing for Washington Monthly, Texas Monthly, The Atlantic Monthly, The New Yorker, meeting Vartan Gregorian during Gregorian's tenure at the New York Public Library; Career in Journalism Education: teaching at University of Texas at Austin, teaching as an adjunct instructor at Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, teaching assistant in Joan W. Konnor's course, interface with Lee C. Bollinger, work on Bollinger's journalism education task, Bollinger's appointment of Lemann to deanship of Columbia Journalism School, Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communication and the status of journalism graduate schools, state of modern journalism's Fifth Estate function, crisis in the business of journalism, implementation of the MA program and reworking the MS program, The Reconstruction of American Journalism, successful students; Work with Carnegie Corporation of New York: Carnegie-Knight Initiative on the Future of Journalism, John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, Geoffrey Cowan, Loren Ghiglione, Susan R. King, Orville H. Schell, Alex S. Jones, Alberto Ibargüen, attempt at writing The Flexner Report for journalism, News21.
Oral history interview with...

7. Oral history interview with Omar Badsha, 1999

Badsha, Omar
  • Name: Badsha, Omar (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 1999
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 2
  • Abstract: (b. 1945) Photography career: influence of family; use of photography in the South African liberation movement to educate and mobilize people, stimulate debate; involvement with trade unions early 1970s: documenting work injuries and history of movem ent through photographs; struggle against government restrictions on photography: use of progressive, church and trade union publications, smuggling of photographs outside South Africa, traveling exhibitions; establishment of Afrapix and Afrascope: progressive young photographers and filmmakers, black and white, documenting South Africa; growing anti-apartheid movement; participant in the Carnegie Corporation of New York's [Carnegie] Second Carnegie Inquiry into Poverty and Development in Southern Africa; themes of photographs for Carnegie project: stereotypes, links between poverty and apartheid, mine and factory workers; emerging South African women's movement in early 1980s; photographic exhibition book for Carnegie project, South Africa: The Cordoned Heart
Oral history interview with...

8. Oral history interview with Rookaya Bawa, 2011

Bawa, Rookaya
  • Name: Bawa, Rookaya (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 2011
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 3
  • Abstract: Early life in South Africa; marriage at age sixteen; one of ten people of color allowed to go to a white university; graduate education in England; member of black faculty at South Africa universities; work in libraries for South African Department of Education; mother of two girls; hired by Carnegie to develop a model library program in Africa; work in the field in Africa; importance of technology to African libraries; utilizing partnerships with local governments to ensure completion and sustainability of libraries; the library as safe space; development of library collections; inefficacy of mobile libraries; building of inter-library research commons; methods of activating interest in public libraries; choosing which libraries to work with; training public librarians; digitization of collections; benefits to philanthropy of hiring specialists or generalists; leadership of and disagreements with Vartan Gregorian; return to South Africa to care for ill daughter; future position as executive director of the academic library at University of Johannesburg; impressions of New York City; continuing role as consultant for Carnegie.
Oral history interview with...

9. Oral history interview with Susan R. King, 2013

King, Susan
  • Name: King, Susan (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 2013
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 3
  • Abstract: Susan King begins by discussing her childhood and education; network news journalism career in the 1970s-80s at CBS, ABC and NBC; and positions as the Executive Director of the Family and Medical Leave Commission of the U.S. Department of Labor and as the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs at HUD (United States Department of Housing and Urban Development) under the (Bill) Clinton administration. King then discusses her role as Vice President for External Affairs at the Carnegie Corporation of New York: coming to work at the Carnegie Corporation in 1999; revitalizing the Carnegie Corporation’s internal publications; her thoughts on Vartan Gregorian and on changes made to the Carnegie Corporation under his tenure as President; the Carnegie-Knight News21 project, and her thoughts on journalism education and the future of the journalism field. King further discusses her role and responsibilities at the Carnegie Corporation: working with Vartan Gregorian, the Carnegie publications Carnegie Quarterly, Carnegie Review, and Carnegie Results, the Carnegie Corporation’s increasing reliance on commissions and consulting firms during her tenure, the Carnegie Corporation’s reaction to the September 11th attacks, and the Islam Initiative and Gregorian’s book, Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith. Finally, King discusses topics including her experience as a woman in journalism and dealing with age and appearance-based discrimination in the industry; spearheading an initiative to combat sweatshop exploitation of workers during her tenure with the U.S. Department of Labor; her involvement with inter-foundation partnerships, including organizing a meeting of New York’s major charitable foundations to coordinate relief fundraising in the weeks following September 11th; and Columbia University’s role in spearheading the Carnegie-Knight News21 journalism education initiative.
Oral history interview with...

10. Oral history interview with Thomas H. Kean, 2013

Kean, Thomas H.
  • Name: Kean, Thomas H. (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 2013
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 3
  • Abstract: Path to position on board of Carnegie Corporation of New York: work on topic of education during governorship; McKinsey & Company report; involvement of trustees in grantmaking; process of hiring Vartan Gregorian as president of Carnegie Corporation: search committee, impressions of Vartan Gregorian, comparison with David A. Hamburg; communication: board involvement in policy, national and international presence; role of board chairman; comparison with other nonprofit boards; work as chair of 9/11 Commission: influence of Carnegie leadership experience, advantage of background outside national security; return to Carnegie board in 2005; board involvement in investments; development of trustee ethics code; second term as chairman: reorganization of committees, discussion of meeting structure; centennial celebration: reconnection with Carnegie family and Carnegie institutions; personal and organizational philosophy of risk in grantmaking; program review under Vartan Gregorian: staff turnover, Carnegie legacy, history; education programming: collaboration with Gates Foundation, importance of teacher education and recognition, racial and economic inequality in American school systems, special program for New York City schools; democracy programming: efforts to increase voter registration, importance of civic education; Islam Initiative; impact of Carnegie Corporation; future of philanthropy.
Oral history interview with...

11. Oral history interview with Vartan Gregorian, 2013

Gregorian, Vartan
  • Name: Gregorian, Vartan (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 2013
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 3
  • Abstract: In this ten session interview, Vartan Gregorian provides a wide-ranging reflection on his personal and professional backgrounds, his priorities leading the Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY), and the underlying philosophies that have informed his work. Many topics recur in different contexts across interview sessions. Gregorian discusses his youth in detail, including: his early life in the Armenian Quarter of Tabriz, Iran; his family and the influence of his grandmother; his move to Beirut, Lebanon; and his love of poetry. He discusses his education and his undergrad years at Stanford University, with a focus on his studies and cultural differences he observed between the United States and Armenia. He discusses meeting his wife Clare Gregorian, their life as a young couple, and their travels together. Gregorian describes his professional life before becoming president of CCNY. He discusses being a professor at San Francisco State University in the 1960s, and looks at the campus political climate and his teaching style. He discusses his roles at the University of Texas, Austin and as dean at the University of Pennsylvania. He also discusses his work as president of New York Public Library, detailing the library's administration, fundraising, and programming with New York City's public schools. He also describes his time as president of Brown and controversial events on campus during his tenure. Gregorian also reflects on his time at CCNY. Some topics covered are: the corporate culture of CCNY; CCNY's global outlook; funding; Gregorian's grantmaking philosophy; and changes that he implemented in Board of Trustee operations. He also discusses initiatives of the Corporation during his tenure including higher education in Africa; the Carnegie Scholars and study of Islam; higher education in Russia and former Soviet Union; elections reform; and partnerships in journalism, civics, and citizenship. Gregorian also discusses Afghanistan in great detail. He analyzes his PhD work and monograph on the country; his travels there; the country's history; the United States' wars in Afghanistan and Iraq; and Carnegie projects in Afghanistan. In additon, Gregorian elaborates on broader historical, literary, and philosophical topics. These include his personal thoughts on learning and respect; the history of Armenia and the Armenian diaspora; his research on the Soviet Union and travels there; his autobiography; the role of Islam in the world; nationalism; the effects of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks; and the history of US foreign policy.
Oral history interview with...

12. Oral history interview with Vivien Stewart 1999

Stewart, Vivien
  • Name: Stewart, Vivien (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 1999
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 2
  • Abstract: Childhood in Portsmouth, England; education: Oxford University; travel in Africa prior to graduate study; Russell Sage Foundation research fellow; career: Carnegie Corporation of New York: program assistant, program officer, associate secretary, progr am chair for Education and Healthy Development of Children and Youth, senior advisor to president, acting vice president; foundation work: working relationships with colleagues, balancing work and motherhood, thoughts on task forces, cooperation with other foundations, combining grantmaking and operating functions, transitions between presidents Alan Pifer, David Hamburg and Vartan Gregorian, expanded staff and budget; work on educational issues: childcare and young children's development, improving junior high school education, prevention of adolescent problems through non-school programs, financing early education, update of teacher training and school curricula, importance of school-based leadership and community support, women and minorities in education and teaching, public exposure to task force reports, American versus foreign educational support systems, general awakening of interest in education nationwide; combining funding of model programs with general reform initiatives; challenges facing Carnegie at time of interview.
Oral history with Desmond T...

13. Oral history with Desmond Tutu 1999

Tutu, Desmond
  • Name: Tutu, Desmond (Interviewee)
  • Format: oral histories
  • Date: 1999
  • Collection Name: Carnegie Corporation project. Part 2
  • Abstract: (Born 1931- ) Decision to leave teaching profession for ordination training, 1957; contextualizing Western theology into a uniquely African model; appointment as Anglican Dean of Johannesburg (1975): opportunity to articulate aspirations of the black majority to media; 1976 Soweto uprising as proof of new generation' s willingness to fight for liberation; importance of religion in Africa, world community, and anti-apartheid struggle; importance of support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York [Carnegie] and its role in South Africa: impact of First Inquiry on Poverty in South Africa, role of Carnegie President David Hamburg, Carnegie's support of the Centre for Applied Legal Studies and the Legal Resources Centre; witness to human capacity for good and evil as co-chair of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.